english group

In the name of God

آزمون زبان انگلیسی عمومی ویژه دبیران زبان انگلیسی منطقه پیربکران

لطفاً پاسخها را با پاسخنامه  ارسال شده به مدارس تا تاریخ 20/12/90  به آدرس گروههای آموزشی منطقه پیربکران ارسال نمایید. (آزمون نمره منفی ندارد)


A) Grammar

a) choose the best answer to complete the sentence and mark your answer sheet.

1- It was essential that we ……………………………….. the lease before the end of the month.

a) sign                                          b) signed

c) had signed                                d) were signing

2- The Japanese use seven times …………………………………….…….. for food as do Europeans.

a) the fish                                     b) more fish

c) as much fish                             d) as fish

3- I was surprised to see …………………………………….……..  at the concert.

a) those number of people            b) that amount of people

c) that number of people              d) those amount of people

4- William Shakespeare ,…………………………………….…….., introduced a new kind of literature to the world.

a) the famous English author who

b) the famous English author

c) despite the famous English author

d) he is the famous English author

5- I wonder …………………………………….……..  the company just like his father.

a) if is he able to handle               b) if he is able to handle

c) was he handling                        d) he is handled


6-You…………able to prevent the problems at the meeting.But you didn’t.

a)have be                                   b)might have been

c)should have been                    d)might be

7-As soon as…………..with an acid,salt and sometimes water is formed.

a)a base reacts                           b)a base will react

c)a base is reacting                     d)the reaction of a base

8-All the creal grains…………..grow on the plains of west.

a)but rice                                          b)except the rice

c)but for rice                                     d)excepting rice

9)There…………….in that part of the country.

a)is not many industry                     b)are not much industry

c)is not much industry                      d)are not many industry


10-Canada doesn’t accept immigrants ,and

a)Mexico does neither                      b)Mexico doesn’t either

c)neither does Mexico does              d)either does Mexico



B. Vocabulary : Choose the best choice with the nearest meaning to the underlined word and mark your answer sheet.


11- the factory was fined because it discharged chemicals into the river

a) authorized                                b) emptied

b) ruled out                                  d) eliminated

12- the boss felt awkward by the man’s question.

a) Inconsistent                              b) uncomfortable

c) remarkable                               d) satisfied

13- The inspector determined that the crack in the bridge was only superficial .

a) lasting                                      b) dim

c) shallow                                     d) gigantic

14- The ship has the right of Navigation through international waters.

a) legitimacy                                 b) demonstration

c) voyaging                                   d) trading

15- It is a fallacy that you can gain more with less effort.

a) misconception                          b) legend

c) potentially                                d) discard

16- Some studies suggest that enthusiasm may be an inherited trait.

a) enchantment                             b) precision

c) earnestness                               d) humanity

17- Most mammals try to maintain a relatively constant body temperature, regardless of what the air temperature might be.

a) heedless of                                b) in spite of

c) partial to                                  d) according

18- Astronauts go through rigorous training programs to prepare for space flights.

a) Coherent                                  b) demanding

c) rightful                                     d) placid

19- Your rude reply was an affront to his pride.

a) ease                                          b) insult

c) maintenance                             d) interiority

20- a dove is anemblem of peace .

a) symbol                                     b) resource

c) spine                                         d) convenience

Good Luck





In the name of God

Answer sheet

Name :


Last name :


Personnel code :















































































































+ نوشته شده در  سه شنبه هجدهم بهمن 1390ساعت 22:3  توسط soofi  | 

Dear student :


Here are biographies of some great and famouse men and women of history . please read them carefully and try to guess who are these famous people. Then send your answers to the address below:

pir bakran District, Educational groups.


1- He was an Italian from Venice. He was a great traveller. He travelled from Venice to china in 1260 and he went to Kublai khun’s capictal at pecking. He was the first European in china. Then he went back to Venice. He told wonderful stories about china, but many Italians didn’t believe him. Who is he?


2- He was a great artist and scientist. He lived in Italy at the end of the fifteenth century. He painted some beautiful pictures. And he also made many important scientific discoveries. He also drew a helicopter and a submarine. Who is he?


 she was the first woman in space. She went into space on 16 June 1963 and was in space for about three days. She went around the earth 48 times and travelled about 1.960.000 kilometers. who is she ?


4- In 1861 He looked through a microscope and saw millions of small creatures. He called these creatures germs. Some germs poisoned the blood and killed people. He began the fight against these harmful germs. Who is he?


5- He was an Italian. In 1609 he made a telescope and looked through It at the planets. He said the earth goes around the sun. The earth is not the center of everything. The church is wrong. The church was very angry, but in 1822 , 180 years after his death , the church changed It mind. He was right. Who is he?


6- He was the first man who reached the north pole over sea – ice In 1909. The Arctic is not land. It is an Ice cap. He travelled over this ice in a sledge. Who is he?

+ نوشته شده در  شنبه بیست و ششم آذر 1390ساعت 18:13  توسط soofi  | 


باسمه تعالی

باسمه تعالی

جمهوري اسلامی ایران

وزارت آموزش و پرورش

اداره کل آموزش و پرورش استان اردبیل

تهیه و تنظیم :

معاونت آموزش متوسطه

گروه تکنولوژي و گروه هاي آموزشی متوسطه

دبیرخانه راهبري کشوري درس زبان انگلیسی

90- سالتحصیلی 91

شیوه نامه

دبیران درس زبان انگلیسی Online اجراي مسابقه

استان هاي سراسر کشور


دستورالعمل وشیوه نامه اجراي مسابقه کشوري کتابخوانی

دبیران درس زبان انگلیسی

(online) بصورت اینترنتی


از آنجایی که به روز نمودن اطلاعات علمی و ایجاد انگیزه براي یادگیري از عوامل موثر در ارتقاي

کیفیت خدمات آموزشی در مدارس می باشد و ارتقاي علمی و توانمندي دبیران و معلمان باعث افزایش

سطح علمی و میزان یادگیري دانش آموزان می گردد و همچنین بمنظور تشویق فرهنگ کتابخوانی در

میان دبیران و معلمان درس زبان انگلیسی، دبیرخانه راهبري درس زبان انگلیسی کشور مستقر در استان

به شرح ذیل نماید. online اردبیل، در نظر دارد مبادرت به برگزاري مسابقه علمی


-1 ارتقاي سطح علمی و آموزشی دبیران و معلمان درس زبان انگلیسی

-2 توسعه و رشد کیفی سطح آموزش درس زبان انگلیسی

-3 تشویق فرهنگ کتابخوانی در حوزه تخصصی درس زبان انگلیسی

-4 آشنایی با دیدگاه هاي مختلف و جدید در حوزه تخصصی درس زبان انگلیسی

-5 افزایش مهارت هاي استفاده از فناوري اطلاعات و ارتباطات و آزمون هاي الکترونیکی

-6 آشنایی با جایگاه تکنولوژي آموزشی در فرایند یاددهی و یادگیري درس زبان انگلیسی

-7 شناسایی دبیران خلاق وتوانمند

شرایط شرکت کنندگان

کلیه دبیران و معلمان رشته زبان انگلیسی دوره متوسطه تحصیلی در استانهاي سراسر کشور که داراي

مدرک تحصیلی لیسانس و یا بالاتر هستند می توانند در این آزمون شرکت کنند.

منبع آزمون

Blackwell Publishing از انتشارات Barbara Johnstone تالیف Discourse Analysis کتاب


شیوه اجرا

-1 مرحله منطقه اي:

در این مرحله شایسته است سرگروه هاي محترم درس زبان انگلیسی مناطق و نواحی استان ها با همکاري

کارشناس تکنولوژي و گروه هاي آموزشی هرشهرستان/منطقه نسبت به برگزاري مسابقه در هفته آخر

90 به گروه تکنولوژي /10/ آذر ماه 1390 اقدام، و اسامی منتخبین را حداکثر تا روز پنجشنبه مورخ 15

وگروههاي آموزشی استان مربوط اعلام نمایند.

-2 مرحله استانی:

در این مرحله سرگروههاي محترم زبان انگلیسی استان ها با همکاري گروه تکنولوژي و گروه هاي

آموزشی هر استان نسبت به برگزاري مسابقه در هفته پایانی بهمن ماه 1390 اقدام و اسامی منتخبین را

90 به دبیرخانه کشوري درس زبان انگلیسی مستقر در استان اردبیل /12/ حداکثر تا روز شنبه مورخ 20

اعلام نمایند.

-3 مرحله کشوري:

مرحله کشوري به صورت همزمان در اردیبهشت ماه سال 1391 از ساعت 9 صبح الی 13 بین همه

استانها بصورت آنلاین برگزار می گردد. (روز و تاریخ دقیق آزمون متعاقبا اعلام خواهد شد).

-4 پس از برگزاري مرحله کشوري اسامی نفرات برتر برگزیده بصورت بخشنامه و همچنین در وب

اعلام و www.english.medu.ir سایت دبیر خانه راهبري کشوري درس زبان انگلیسی به نشانی

از نفرات برتر نیز قدردانی بعمل خواهد آمد.

-5 دبیرخانه راهبري درس زبان انگلیسی کشوري در روزهاي یکشنبه و دوشنبه از طریق شماره تلفن هاي

0451 و همراه 09144510342 (صرفا در ساعات اداري) آماده - 0451-22489660 و 2248967

پاسخگویی به سئوالات همکاران محترم در صورت نیاز می باشد.

نحوه شرکت دبیران منتخب استانی در مرحله ي کشوري:

آدرس وب سایت و نحوه شرکت همکاران محترم در مرحله کشوري متعاقبا و در اسرع وقت اعلام

خواهد شد.


سهمیه استان ها : در مرحله کشوري

ردیف استانها سهمیه شرکت


هر استان

گروه 1 خراسان رضوي/ شهر تهران 10

گروه 2 شهرستانهاي تهران/اصفهان/ آذربایجان شرقی/فارس/ خوزستان /مازندران

/آذربایجان غربی/کرمان /گیلان


گروه 3 سیستان وبلوچستان/ البرز/کرمانشاه/لرستان/همدان/گلستان /کردستان/

هرمزگان/مرکزي/ اردبیل/ قزوین/ قم/یزد /سمنان/ زنجان


گروه 4 / بوشهر/ چهار ومحال بختیاري/ خراسان شمالی /خراسان جنوبی/ کهگیلویه

وبویر احمد/ /ایلام


جدول تقویم اجرایی مسابقات

ردیف فعالیت تاریخ

1 تشکیل کمیته اجرایی مسابقات در استان بلافاصله پس از وصول دستورالعمل

2 تشکیل کمیته اجرا در مناطق و نواحی استان بلافاصله پس از وصول دستورالعمل

3 اجراي مسابقات مرحله ي منطقه اي و معرفی نفرات برتر منطقه/

ناحیه/ شهرستان به اداره کل و ارسال گزارشی از روند اجرا

حداکثر تا پایان دي ماه

پایان بهمن ماه 1391 online 4 اجراي مرحله ي استانی مسابقات به صورت

1390 /12/ 5 معرفی نفرات برتر استان به دبیرخانه کشوري زبان انگلیسی حداکثر تا تاریخ 20

اردیبهشت ماه 91 online 6 اجراي مرحله کشوري مسابقات به صورت

7 اعلام نتایج اردیبهشت ماه سال 91

گروه تکنولوژي و گروه هاي آموزشی متوسطه استان اردبیلمسابقه کتابخوانی

+ نوشته شده در  جمعه چهارم آذر 1390ساعت 22:0  توسط soofi  | 

EFL Vocabulary Teaching Tips

Direct Teaching Activities for Second Language Learners

Vocabulary in the Second Language Classroom - Jon Sullivan

Vocabulary is a key element in the second language class. While grammar is important for meaning, without vocabulary no message is conveyed.

Language learners are faced on a daily basis with the task of acquiring, and retaining, new vocabulary. One of the main tasks of a language teacher, then, is to help students develop a sufficiently large vocabulary. Nevertheless, some language teachers ignore this fundamental fact, assuming that the vocabulary will take care of itself through repeated exposure and classroom activities. As I.S.P. Nation notes in "Teaching and Learning Vocabulary" (Heinle & Heinle 1990), however, developing a principled and systematic approach to teaching, as well as learning, vocabulary, can be a valuable use of class time.

Direct Vocabulary Teaching

Direct vocabulary teaching occurs when teachers do exercises and activities in class that focus the learners’ attention on vocabulary, such as guessing meaning from context and vocabulary games. In direct vocabulary learning, therefore, a conscious effort is made by the learner to remember new words. While indirect learning is still where most vocabulary acquisition takes place, there is room for more direct teaching methods in the second language (L2) classroom, when and if certain factors are taken into consideration.

  • In order to retain learned vocabulary, learners need to “meet” the words in a variety of contexts, anywhere from 5-16 different times.
  • Learners best remember words when they have manipulated them in different ways, so variety is essential for vocabulary teaching.
  • Recycling and reviewing vocabulary is an important part of the lesson plan as most new words are forgotten in the first twenty-four hours after class.
  • For long-term retention, no more than 10-12 new words should be presented at a time.

Memory Strategies for Learning New Vocabulary

New words need to be related to learners' existing knowledge (or schema), sounds, images, personal feelings/responses, diagrams, etc. The following activities can be used to reinforce the learning of new vocabulary:

  • Connecting words to a personal experience. Learners can think about they way they respond to new words by categorizing them into groups: the words they like/dislike (e.g., based on the way they are spelled or pronounced), or the words they think will be easy (or difficult) to remember, and why.
  • Sorting and ranking activities. In the case of learning a list of animals, for instance, learners can separate the new animals by dangerous/not dangerous, or eat/don’t eat. For a list of food, learners can rank the food items from those they like most to those they like least.
  • TPR (Total Physical Response). Learners associate a verb to an action (or an emotion to a gesture) by physically acting out the word.
  • Pictorial representations. Small drawings in context (a picture of a house labeled with window, door, roof, etc.) can aid retention of new words. Imaging, where learners use the way a word looks to associate it with its meaning, also helps.
  • Grouping words by collocations. Another way for learners to manipulate and remember new words is to join them according to the words they are often found with. (i.e., idea: original, brilliant, unusual, great).


+ نوشته شده در  جمعه چهارم آذر 1390ساعت 21:33  توسط soofi  | 

Zig Ziglar

I will not say failed 1000 times,
I will say That i discovered there are 1000 ways that can cause failure.


Three sentences for getting success

1-Know more than other
2-Work more than other
3-Expect less than other


+ نوشته شده در  سه شنبه سوم آبان 1390ساعت 22:7  توسط soofi  | 

Multiple Intelligences: Theory and Practice in Adult ESL. ERIC Digest. 

by Christison, Mary Ann - Kennedy, Deborah 

The theory of multiple intelligences (MI) broadens the traditional view of intelligence as solely composed of verbal/linguistic and logical/mathematical abilities. MI theory maintains that all humans possess at least eight different intelligences that represent a variety of ways to learn and demonstrate understanding. This digest outlines the basic tenets of MI theory and describes how it has been applied in teaching English as a second language (ESL) to adults. 


Intelligence has traditionally been defined in terms of intelligence quotient (IQ), which measures a narrow range of verbal/linguistic and logical/mathematical abilities. Howard Gardner (1993) argues that humans possess a number of distinct intelligences that manifest themselves in different skills and abilities. All human beings apply these intelligences to solve problems, invent processes, and create things. Intelligence, according to MI theory, is being able to apply one or more of the intelligences in ways that are valued by a community or culture. The current MI model outlines eight intelligences, although Gardner (1999) continues to explore additional possibilities. 

* Linguistic Intelligence: The ability to use language effectively both orally and in writing. 

* Logical/Mathematical Intelligence: The ability to use numbers effectively and reason well. 

* Visual/Spatial Intelligence: The ability to recognize form, space, color, line, and shape and to graphically represent visual and spatial ideas. 

* Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence: The ability to use the body to express ideas and feelings and to solve problems. 

* Musical Intelligence: The ability to recognize rhythm, pitch, and melody. 

* Naturalist Intelligence: The ability to recognize and classify plants, minerals, and animals. 

* Interpersonal Intelligence: The ability to understand another person's feelings, motivations, and intentions and to respond effectively. 

* Intrapersonal Intelligence: The ability to know about and understand oneself and recognize one's similarities to and differences from others. 


Rather than functioning as a prescribed teaching method, curriculum, or technique, MI theory provides a way of understanding intelligence, which teachers can use as a guide for developing classroom activities that address multiple ways of learning and knowing (Christison, 1999b). Teaching strategies informed by MI theory can transfer some control from teacher to learners by giving students choices in the ways they will learn and demonstrate their learning. By focusing on problem-solving activities that draw on multiple intelligences, these teaching strategies encourage learners to build on existing strengths and knowledge to learn new content and skills (Kallenbach, 1999). It may also mean the adult learners who have had little success in traditional classrooms where only linguistic and mathematics skills are valued may experience more success when other intelligences are tapped. Likewise, adult ESL learners from cultures where other intelligences-such as interpersonal or musical-are highly valued may find the MI classroom a productive learning environment. 

Broadly speaking, teachers have developed four ways of using MI theory in the classroom. 

1. As a tool to help students develop a better understanding and appreciation of their own strengths and learning preferences. Christison (1999a) has developed an inventory to identify the preferred intelligences of adult English language learners. Learners are asked to respond to six statements about each of eight intelligences. An excerpt follows. 


Directions: Rate each statement 2, 1, or 0. 2 means you strongly agree. 1 means you are in the middle. 0 means you disagree. Total the points for each intelligence. Compare your scores on the different intelligences. 

Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence 

--- 1. I like to read books, magazines, or newspapers. 

--- 2. I often write notes and letters to my friends and family. 

--- 3. I like to talk to people at parties. 

--- 4. I like to tell jokes. 

--- 5. I like to talk to my friends on the phone. 

--- 6. I like to talk about things I read. 

Logical/Mathematical Intelligence 

--- 1. I can do arithmetic easily in my head. 

--- 2. I am good at doing a budget. 

--- 3. I am good at chess, checkers, or number games. 

--- 4. I am good at solving problems. 

--- 5. I like to analyze things. 

--- 6. I like to organize things. 

--- 7. I like crossword puzzles. 

Naturalist Intelligence 

--- 1. I like houseplants. 

--- 2. I have or would like to have a pet. 

--- 3. I know the names of many different flowers. 

--- 4. I know the names of many different wild animals. 

--- 5. I like to hike and to be outdoors. 

--- 6. I notice the trees and plants in my neighborhood. 

Teachers may adapt the language and accompanying activities to suit the needs of the language learners in their classes. Word finds, pair dictations, dictionary and spelling work, focused listening, and grammar activities can help learners become comfortable with the inventory language even while they are engaged in skills work. Teachers may choose to let the students decide whether or not to score the inventory. Other activities, such as dialog journals, murals or bulletin boards, and small group conversations also offer adult ESL learners opportunities to reflect on their own strengths. The ideas and information that come from these activities can inform learner needs assessment and goal-setting processes. 

2. As a tool to develop a better understanding of learners' intelligences. An understanding of MI theory broadens teachers' awareness of their students' knowledge and skills and enables them to look at each student from the perspective of strengths and potential. Teachers also become aware of the different ways in which students may demonstrate their understanding of material. MI theory provides a structured way of understanding and addressing the diversity that ESL instructors often encounter in the classroom (Christison, 1996). On a given topic or skill, teachers can brainstorm with learners a list of activities to practice. For instance, beginners can learn about consumerism by making and labeling collages of merchandise, reading newspaper ads, developing dialogues, or going on a scavenger hunt to the store. In this way, each learner can acquire language skills by employing individual strengths or preferences. 

3. As a guide to provide a greater variety of ways for students to learn and to demonstrate their learning. Identification of personal strengths can make students more receptive to nontraditional learning activities and can give students a successful experience that builds their confidence as learners. As learners and teachers work together, intelligences can emerge naturally through partner interviews, preference grids (I can..., I like to...), and needs assessments. However, some teachers have encountered at least initial resistance to this process of describing intelligences among students whose cultural or educational backgrounds emphasize more traditional modes of teaching and learning (Costanzo & Paxton, 1999). In this case, teachers may choose to focus learners' attention on the language they are practicing through these activities rather than on the theory. (More challenges to using MI-based activities in the adult ESL classroom are described in the upcoming study on MI from the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy [Viens & Kallenbach, in press].) 

Teachers have noted other positive effects of applying MI theory. A curriculum informed by MI theory provides a way of handling differing language skill levels within one class-a very common situation in adult ESL classes (Costanzo & Paxton, 1999). When multiple activities are available, more students can find ways to participate and take advantage of language acquisition opportunities. With an MI curriculum, students become aware that different people have different strengths and that each person has a substantive contribution to make (Kallenbach, 1999). This fits in well with project-based learning where students in a group can divide tasks based on individual strengths. For example, one learner might feel confident about planning, another might prefer to do the writing, and a third might feel able to present the project to the whole class. 

4. As a guide to develop lesson plans that address the full range of learner needs. An MI-informed reading lesson may begin with typical prereading activities (reviewing earlier material, predicting what will happen next), followed by silent reading or reading aloud with discussion of vocabulary and text meaning. Learners can then complete a project, individually or in groups, to demonstrate their understanding of the text. The teacher offers a choice of projects, such as descriptive writing, map drawing, illustration, creation of a dialogue or skit, making a timeline, song writing, and retelling. The objective is not to teach to specific intelligences or to correlate intelligences with specific activities, but rather to allow learners to employ their preferred ways of processing and communicating new information (Coustan & Rocka, 1999). 

Teachers using this type of lesson report that students become more engaged in and enthusiastic about reading; the students gain greater understanding of material when they express what they have read in ways that are comfortable for them; and their reading strategies improve as reading becomes a tool for completion of projects they are interested in (Coustan & Rocka, 1999). 


Teachers who use MI theory to inform their curriculum development find that they gain a deeper understanding of students' learning preferences and a greater appreciation of their strengths. Students are likely to become more engaged in learning as they use learning modes that match their intelligence strengths. In addition, students' regular reflection on their learning broadens their definitions of effective and acceptable teaching and learning practices. Students' increased engagement and success in learning stimulates teachers to raise their expectations, initiating a powerful expectation-response cycle that can lead to greater achievement levels for all. 


+ نوشته شده در  شنبه سی ام بهمن 1389ساعت 9:26  توسط soofi  | 

In the name of God

آزمون تخصصی زبان انگلیسی ویژه دبیران زبان انگلیسی منطقه پیربکران

لطفاً پاسخها را با پاسخنامه ارسال شده به مدارس تا تاریخ 15/9/89 به آدرس گروههای آموزشی منطقه پیربکران

ارسال نمایید. (آزمون نمره منفی ندارد)


A) methodology

1- The Grammar – Translation Method relies heavily on learning by ……………………….…… .

a) analysis              b) analogy             c) memorization             d) repetition

2- In the communicative Approach are ……………………….…… used   .

a) literary pieces                                      b) authentic materials

c) structurally graded materials                d) substitution drills

3- The statement that "Teaching should be subordinated to learning is one of the basic principles of the ……………………….……  .

a) Audiolingual Method                            b) Direct Method

c) Silent way                                            d) Grammar Translation Method

4- An important characteristics of humanistic approach to teaching is an emphasis on

a) teaching aids                                       b) teaching atmosphere

c) the teacher                                           d) the learner

5- Your native language , Farsi, tends to adversely in fluence your learning of English. This Phenomenon is called ……………………….……  .

a) extrapolation       b) fossilization          c) interference            d) interlanguage

6- According to krashen in his "Monitor Moldel" , if affective filter is eliminated learning will

be ……………………….……  .

a) frustrated            b) facilitated              c) prolonged               d) retarted

7- According to the followers of Suggestopedia ……………………….……   enable suggestions to reach subconscious .

a) fine arts              b) information gap    c) language games     d) role reversals


B) testing

8) The most  dependable measure of variability is the ……………………….……  .

a) mean                  b) median                 c) range                      d) variance

9- The more the number of words deleted from a cloze test, the ……………………….……  It  will be.

a) harder                 b) slower                   c) easier                     d) quicker

10- A distractor is mal – functioning if it attracts ……………………….……  . 

a) all of the students                                                                   b) more low than high students

c) more high than low students                d) None of the students

11- Reliability of a test refers to its ……………………….……   .

a) accountability     b) applicability          c) stability                   d) validity

12- The test in which a student's performance is compared to that of the other students is

 called ……………………….……  .

a) a criterion – referenced test                b) a norm – referenced test

c) a speed test                                         d)  a summative test

13-  a large variance in a distribution means that ……………………….……  .

a) deviations are not evenly distributed in the population

b) The median is smaller than the mean

c) The sample is not homogeneous

d) The mean is very large

14- A test which takes some future task as its object is called an (n) ……………………….……  test.

a) achievement test                                                                    b) diagnostic

c) placement                                            d) performance – referenced


C) Linguistics

15- Which one of the following does not belong to the basic processes of word formation

a) assimilation        b) compounding       c) derivation               d) inflection

16- Expressions that attribute qualities to an object not normally associated with those qualities are called……………………….……   .

a) complements      b) homonyms           c) metaphors              d) proverbs

17- The co – text of a word is the ……………………….……  .

a) set of words used in the same phrase or sentence

b) word that can be used instead of that word

c) set of words that have the opposite meanings

d) physical context in which the word is used

18 -  Hyme's name is associated with……………………….……   .

a) creative competence                           b) communicative competence

c) strategic competence                          d) Linguistic competence

19- A phoneme is ……………………….……  .

a) phonetic segment                                                                   b) a meaning – distinguishing sound

c) any sound of a language                     d) the same as allophone

20- ……………………….……  is a modified type of coining in which a word is formed as an imitation of some natural sound.

a) Back formation                                    b) calque

c) loan – translation                                                                    d) Onomatopoeia





In the name of God


Answer Sheet


Name :


Last  name :


Personnel code:













































































































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+ نوشته شده در  سه شنبه بیست و نهم دی 1388ساعت 16:28  توسط soofi  | 

Rod Ellis defines motivation as referring to "the efforts which learners put into learning an L2 as a result of their need or desire to learn" (1995).

The two main types of motivation, intrinsic and extrinsic, can affect the learning process. Intrinsic motivation is task motivation that derives from an inherent interest in the learning tasks while extrinsic motivation refers to the external influences that affect the strength of learner's motivation such as that which comes from teachers and parents.

While some students have their own intrinsic motivation or external motivation, other students need to be motivated to learn. There are many things that you can do as a teacher in order to motivate students to learn. These strategies are based on various articles I have read below.

Students are more likely to want to learn when they appreciate the value of the classroom activities, and when they believe that they will succeed if they apply reasonable effort. Hence, "student motivation to learn is an acquired competence developed through general experiences but stimulated most directly through modeling, communication of expectations, and direct instruction or socialization by significant others - especially teachers and parents" (Brophy, p.40) When it comes to lower performing learners, teachers realize that such learners are accustomed to experiencing failure, hence, the teacher's task is to help them experience success.

Here are some strategies and tips that may motivate students and stimulate them to learn.

  • Provide a supportive environment and establish a trusting bond. "Motivation is the feeling nurtured primarily by the teacher in the learning situation" (Ellis, 1994). Greet your students, interact with them, indicate a personal concern about them as individuals.
  • Cater levels of activity to students' level - try and make sure that the learning tasks pose a reasonable challenge to the students - neither too difficult nor too easy.
  • Help students recognize links between effort outcome - learning is a long term plan of effort and investment.
  • Break down learning steps into digestable pieces.
  • Minimize student's performance anxiety during learning activities
+ نوشته شده در  سه شنبه بیست و نهم دی 1388ساعت 16:20  توسط soofi  | 

Word Stress in English

Word stress is your magic key to understanding spoken English. Native speakers of English use word stress naturally. Word stress is so natural for them that they don't even know they use it. Non-native speakers who speak English to native speakers without using word stress, encounter two problems:

  1. They find it difficult to understand native speakers, especially those speaking fast.
  2. The native speakers may find it difficult to understand them.

In this lesson we look at the most important aspects of word stress, followed by a short quiz to check your understanding:


Word Stress in English - short guide

1. Understanding Syllables

2. What is Word Stress?

3. Why is Word Stress Important?

4. Where do I Put Word Stress?

5. Rules of Word Stress in English

Understanding Syllables

To understand word stress, it helps to understand syllables.
Every word is made from syllables.
Each word has one, two, three or more syllables.

word number of syllables
dog dog 1
green green 1
quite quite 1
quiet qui-et 2
orange or-ange 2
table ta-ble 2
expensive ex-pen-sive 3
interesting in-ter-est-ing 4
realistic re-al-is-tic 4
unexceptional un-ex-cep-tion-al 5

Notice that (with a few rare exceptions) every syllable contains at least one vowel (a, e, i, o or u) or vowel sound.

What is Word Stress?

In English, we do not say each syllable with the same force or strength. In one word, we accentuate ONE syllable. We say one syllable very loudly (big, strong, important) and all the other syllables very quietly.

Let's take 3 words: photograph, photographer and photographic. Do they sound the same when spoken? No. Because we accentuate (stress) ONE syllable in each word. And it is not always the same syllable. So the shape of each word is different.

click word to hearAudio shape total

This happens in ALL words with 2 or more syllables: TEACHer, JaPAN, CHINa, aBOVE, converSAtion, INteresting, imPORtant, deMAND, etCETera, etCETera, etCETera

The syllables that are not stressed are ‘weak’ or ‘small’ or ‘quiet’. Native speakers of English listen for the STRESSED syllables, not the weak syllables. If you use word stress in your speech, you will instantly and automatically improve your pronunciation and your comprehension.

Try to hear the stress in individual words each time you listen to English - on the radio, or in films for example. Your first step is to HEAR and recognise it. After that, you can USE it!

There are two very important rules about word stress:

  1. One word, one stress. (One word cannot have two stresses. So if you hear two stresses, you have heard two words, not one word.)
  2. The stress is always on a vowel.

Why is Word Stress Important?

Word stress is not used in all languages. Some languages, Japanese or French for example, pronounce each syllable with eq-ual em-pha-sis.

Other languages, English for example, use word stress.

Word stress is not an optional extra that you can add to the English language if you want. It is part of the language! English speakers use word stress to communicate rapidly and accurately, even in difficult conditions. If, for example, you do not hear a word clearly, you can still understand the word because of the position of the stress.

Think again about the two words photograph and photographer. Now imagine that you are speaking to somebody by telephone over a very bad line. You cannot hear clearly. In fact, you hear only the first two syllables of one of these words, photo... Which word is it, photograph or photographer? Of course, with word stress you will know immediately which word it is because in reality you will hear either PHOto... or phoTO... So without hearing the whole word, you probably know what the word is ( PHOto...graph or phoTO...grapher). It's magic! (Of course, you also have the 'context' of your conversation to help you.)

This is a simple example of how word stress helps us understand English. There are many, many other examples, because we use word stress all the time, without thinking about it.

Where do I Put Word Stress?

There are some rules about which syllable to stress. But...the rules are rather complicated! Probably the best way to learn is from experience. Listen carefully to spoken English and try to develop a feeling for the "music" of the language.

When you learn a new word, you should also learn its stress pattern. If you keep a vocabulary book, make a note to show which syllable is stressed. If you do not know, you can look in a dictionary. All dictionaries give the phonetic spelling of a word. This is where they show which syllable is stressed, usually with an apostrophe (') just before or just after the stressed syllable. (The notes at the front of the dictionary will explain the system used.) Look at (and listen to) this example for the word plastic. There are 2 syllables. Syllable #1 is stressed.

example phonetic spelling:
dictionary A
phonetic spelling:
dictionary B
/plæs'tIk/ /'plæs tIk/

Rules of Word Stress in English

There are two very simple rules about word stress:

  1. One word has only one stress. (One word cannot have two stresses. If you hear two stresses, you hear two words. Two stresses cannot be one word. It is true that there can be a "secondary" stress in some words. But a secondary stress is much smaller than the main [primary] stress, and is only used in long words.)
  2. We can only stress vowels, not consonants.

Here are some more, rather complicated, rules that can help you understand where to put the stress. But do not rely on them too much, because there are many exceptions. It is better to try to "feel" the music of the language and to add the stress naturally.

1 Stress on first syllable

rule example
Most 2-syllable nouns PRESent, EXport, CHIna, TAble
Most 2-syllable adjectives PRESent, SLENder, CLEVer, HAPpy

2 Stress on last syllable

rule example
Most 2-syllable verbs to preSENT, to exPORT, to deCIDE, to beGIN
There are many two-syllable words in English whose meaning and class change with a change in stress. The word present, for example is a two-syllable word. If we stress the first syllable, it is a noun (gift) or an adjective (opposite of absent). But if we stress the second syllable, it becomes a verb (to offer). More examples: the words export, import, contract and object can all be nouns or verbs depending on whether the stress is on the first or second syllable.


3 Stress on penultimate syllable (penultimate = second from end)

rule example
Words ending in -ic GRAPHic, geoGRAPHic, geoLOGic
Words ending in -sion and -tion teleVIsion, reveLAtion
For a few words, native English speakers don't always "agree" on where to put the stress. For example, some people say teleVIsion and others say TELevision. Another example is: CONtroversy and conTROversy.


4 Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)

rule example
Words ending in -cy, -ty, -phy and -gy deMOcracy, dependaBIlity, phoTOgraphy, geOLogy
Words ending in -al CRItical, geoLOGical

5 Compound words (words with two parts)

rule example
For compound nouns, the stress is on the first part BLACKbird, GREENhouse
For compound adjectives, the stress is on the second part bad-TEMpered, old-FASHioned
For compound verbs, the stress is on the second part to underSTAND, to overFLOW


Now check your understanding >

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